The Franciscan Martyrs of England
Bl. Thomas Bullaker, Bl. Henry Heath, Bl. Arthur Bell, Bl. John Woodcock,
and Bl. Charles Meehan
During the persecutions of King Henry VIII and his
successors in England in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries, many
Catholics were martyred. Among them were these Franciscan priests.
Thomas Bullaker (c1604-1642) (in religion John Baptist)
studied at Valladolid in Spain. He was ordained in 1628 and returned to England
where he worked as a priest, often secretly. He was guardian of Oxford and
provincial secretary. He was betrayed in 1642 and dragged through the streets of
Tyburn where he was hanged, drawn and quartered.
Henry Heath (1599–1643) was a Protestant who studied at
Cambridge before he became a Catholic. He then studied at Douai and became a
friar, taking the name Paul of St Magdalene. Moving back to England, he was
arrested for being a priest and imprisoned at Newgate. He died a martyr’s death
Arthur Bell () came from a Catholic family and, as the
persecutions increased, he fled to the continent. He was ordained at Valladolid
in Spain in 1618. Shortly afterwards, he joined the friars receiving the name,
Francis. At Douai, he became guardian and definitor. Returning to England in
1634, he did his best to solidify the Franciscan presence among the suffering.
Captured in 1643, he was tried, found guilty and hanged at Tyburn.
John Woodcock (1603-1646) joined the friars in 1631 with
the name, Martin of St Felix and was ordained four years later in Douai. His
health was not good but he was allowed to return to England. He was arrested and
held in Lancaster Castle and in an attempted execution, he was flung off a
ladder, but the rope broke. He was then hanged a second time, was cut down and
disemboweled alive in 1646.
Charles Meehan (Mahoney) (c1639-1679) belonged to the Irish
Province of Franciscans and spent some of 1676 at St Isidore’s College in Rome.
Attempting to return to Ireland from the continent where he had been ordained,
he was shipwrecked and landed in Wales. He was arrested in 1678 and imprisoned
at Denbigh. He went on trial the following year at Ruthin in north Wales where
he was condemned and hanged.
Charles, as well as Henry, Arthur and John, were among 85
martyrs beatified in 1987 by John Paul II, while Thomas was among 135 martyrs
beatified in 1929 by Pius XI.
The community here at the London Greyfriars did not provide any martyrs at
the time of Henry VIII’s break with Rome. But it is worth remembering that
the Franciscan Order provided perhaps the strongest opposition to the King’s
divorce. As early as 1534, just as the crisis was breaking, two friars,
Richard Risby and Hugh Rich, were executed alongside the ‘Holy Nun’,
Elizabeth Barton, a visionary who had attacked the King’s divorce ‘in the
name and by the authority of God’.
Another Franciscan to suffer for the Faith, Blessed John Forest, belonged to
the Observant friary at Greenwich and was placed here under house arrest for
several years. His house was strict and also highly influential, since it
was next door to the royal palace at Greenwich. It was in the Franciscan
church there that the future Henry VIII was baptised; as were all three of
his children, the future Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. It was
(probably) there that Henry married Catherine of Aragon. In 1513 the King
had praised the Observants in a letter to Pope Leo X, saying that he could
not sufficiently commend the Observant Friars' strict adherence to poverty,
their sincerity, charity and devotion. How things would change!
It is little surprising that the Observants of Greenwich were so closely
involved in opposing the King’s divorce. This placed them in grave danger.
The Warden, William Peto, preached a sermon to the Court condemning the
King’s divorce and predicting that black dogs would lick the blood of Henry,
like King Ahab in the Old Testament. This was supposedly fulfilled fifteen
years later as the King's body was taken to Windsor. Peto, unsurprisingly,
had to escape to the continent, though, it is worth mentioning, he returned
in Mary Tudor’s reign and was even named a Cardinal in 1557.
Blessed John Forest was less fortunate. He had acted as one of the
confessors of Catherine of Aragon, who herself was a Franciscan Tertiary,
and he was forthright in his opposition. After several years of
imprisonment, he was tried for denying the Oath of Supremacy and condemned
to death. On 22 May 1538 he was brought to Smithfield, not far from where we
are standing now. A large crowd had gathered, including the bishop of
London, the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk and the Lord Mayor. Forest made a
brave confession of faith; according to one bystander:|
That if an angel should come down from Heaven and show him any other
thing than he had believed all his lifetime past he would not believe
him, and that if his body should be cut joint after joint or member
after member, burnt, hanged, or what pain soever might be done to his
body, he would never turn from his old sect of this Bishop of Rome.
They hanged him from the gibbet, with a chain placed around his waist. They
then lit a fire and placed on it a statue of a Welsh saint, Derfel Gadarn.
Curiously, according to tradition, it had been predicted that this venerated
statue would one day ‘set a Forest on fire'. ‘The holy man', we read, ‘beat
his breast with his right hand, and then raised both his hands to Heaven and
said many prayers in Latin, his last spoken words being, Domine,
miserere mei: and when the fire reached his breast he spoke no more and
gave up his soul to God'.
Many other Franciscans were placed in prison at this time – as many as two
hundred, fifty of whom died in captivity. A few of these have been
recognised by the Church, including theVenerable Anthony Brookby, a former
Oxford lecturer who spoke against the King’s Supremacy and was imprisoned,
tortured and eventually strangled in prison, the executioner using Brookby’s
The English Franciscans continued, based in houses overseas, and many of
them returned to England as missionaries; some paid the ultimate price. Two
of them were included among the Forty Martyrs: the Welshman,St John Jones,
who suffered in Southwark in 1598, and St John Wall, martyred in 1679, a
victim of the hysteria following the Titus Oates Plot.
There is no time to look at all the Franciscan Martyrs individually, but I
thought we might look at the group of English Friars who suffered in the
1640s: Blessed Thomas Bullaker, Arthur Bell, Henry Heath and John Woodcock.
All of these, except Bullaker, were members of the newly founded English
Franciscan House at Douai.
This group of witnesses were captured in different ways. Blessed Thomas
Bullaker was apprehended while saying Mass in London – he had just reached
the Gloria and was taken away in his vestments. Blessed Arthur Bell was
arrested in Stevenage, Hertfordshire. As he was being interrogated, one of
the soldiers exclaimed: ‘What! A Roman Catholic?', to which he replied, ‘How
do you mean Roman? I am an Englishman. There is but one Catholic Church, and
of that I am a member'.
Blessed Henry Heath had just arrived in England, disguised as a sailor and
had even concealed some Catholic literature in his cap. In the spirit of St
Francis, Heath refused an offer of speedy transport to London and chose to
walk, begging his way. On the night of his arrival he could find no
accommodation and was forced to sleep on a doorstep near London Bridge. When
the owner of the house found him sleeping on his property he called the
local constable and he was taken into custody. The papers found in his cap
betrayed his identity.
All of them met death bravely. As Bullaker was leaving the prison he met
Blessed Arthur Bell, who said to him, ‘Brother, I was professed before you.
Why do you take precedence of me?’ Bullaker answered, ‘It is the will of
God. But you will follow me'. When Bell’s turn came a year later, he
embraced the executioner. Indeed, he had sung the Te Deum as
sentence was passed at court. Woodcock had to endure being hanged twice,
because on the first occasion the rope snapped.
There is a beautiful story relating to the martyrdom of Blessed Henry Heath.
Several years previously, his aged father, John, visited him in Douai. So
impressed was he that he not only converted to Catholicism but decided to
remain at Douai as a lay brother. On the day of his son’s martyrdom, he saw
a brilliant light ascending to Heaven and he knew at that moment that his
son had paid the ultimate price. His premonition was proved some time later
when the reports reached Douai of Heath’s death.
Just as the Franciscans provided some of the first martyrs, such as Blessed
John Forest, so they produced some of the last confessors of the Faith. We
think not only of St John Wall but the Venerable Francis Levison, who died
in prison in 1680 after fourteen months imprisonment; we remember Paul
Atkinson, who was perpetually imprisoned for the Faith in Hurst Castle in
1700 and died, still in captivity, 29 years later; we also recall Germanus
Holmes, who died in Lancaster Castle in 1746, after the Jacobite rising.
We honour these brave witnesses of the Faith today, as we make this
pilgrimage and follow their footsteps, now almost entirely hidden beneath
the modern, bustling, secular city.
I said at the beginning that where we now stand was once the smelliest part
of London, because of the nearby abbatoir. But now this has been replaced by
the powerful odour of the roses in the nearby Greyfriars garden, a place of
calm oasis in the midst of this busy city. How appropriate this is, because
the blood of the martyrs has sanctified this land and been the seed of the
English Catholic Revival for the last 200 years, which we now so take for
granted. We do not forget our Martyrs – and we pray that we will imitate
their example by courageously bearing witness to the Faith in the face of
indifference and open hostility. Let us end with the prayer of the
Franciscan, Blessed Henry Heath: ‘Jesus, convert England, Jesus, have mercy
on this country; O England, be converted to the Lord thy God!’
The Franciscan Martyrs of England and Wales – pray for us!